Deciduous trees and shrubs, grown for their habit, foliage, catkins and, in some cases, colourful winter shoots. Male catkins are more striking than female; each plant usually bears catkins of only one sex. Fully to frost hardy. Most prefer full sun. Most species grow well in any but very dry soil; S. caprea, S. purpurea and their variants also thrive in dry soil. Plants grown for their colourful winter shoots should be cut back hard in early spring every 1-3 years.